Canada’s Justin Trudeau has won a second term as prime minister by the skin of his teeth in a federal election – but he becomes one in a long list of premiers who must rely on a political alliance to stand a chance of governing.
With a few results still to declare, his Liberals collared 156 but need another 14 to gain an absolute majority in the 338 seat House of Commons.
Even if he wins the late declarations, Trudeau will still fall short of the 170 seat majority target.
“We seek hardship for none and prosperity for all, and if we unite around these common goals, I know we can achieve them,” Trudeau announced to cheering supporters after the polls closed.
Trudeau becomes one of a lengthening list of minority leaders.
In the US, President Donald Trump is heading for a hopeful second term, but is a minority Republican in a Democrat Congress stifling his every move.
In Britain, Prime Minister Boris Johnson faces the hapless task of steering his European Union Withdrawal Bill through Parliament with 288 out of 650 MPs to rely on.
A minority government is when a political party does not have most seats in parliament. Under a minority, laws can only be passed with the support of opposition members.
Many countries struggle on with alliances between political rivals that can be made and unmade over years or even decades.
Italy and Denmark are good examples of countries where successive governments have failed to win any where near a majority for long periods.
Countries with minority governments
Other countries with minority governments include:
|Czech Republic||Andrej Babiš||93||46.50%||15||108/200||54.00%|
|Republic of Ireland||Leo Varadkar||52||32.90%||44||96/158||60.80%|
|New Zealand||Jacinda Ardern||55||45.80%||8||63/120||52.50%|
|South Korea||Moon Jae-in||128||42.70%||0||128/300||42.70%|